Characters on the hairpins
Characters are also a kind of patterns, so people like to put some lucky symbolic on the hairpins. So they also put some Characters on the hairpins. Such as happiness (喜), live longer (壽), fortune(福), lucky (吉)...etc.
Foreign Characters 外文(英文、日文)
In late Ching dynasty there were a lot of foreign culture go into China. So there are some hairpins decarated with pattern on and it is also a kind of modern in that timing.
English and Japanese - RTZ..HAN